Timeline – The Past 2,016 Years – PART ONE

In this article, I will be reviewing some of the most important, and most interesting events occurring in the past 2,016 years. (This is only the first part of the article. It covers the years 1 CE-1200 CE.)


Tiberius was a Roman emperor from 14-37 Ce. He had a history in the military. When he was 22, he became popular after conquering Pannoia on the Adriatic Sea. (Source) (Source)

Sometime between the years 27 and 29, Jesus began preaching. He was crucified sometime between 30 and 33. (Source) (Source)

Tiberius was succeeded by Caligula, who was assassinated by a group of young men in 41. He was stabbed thirty times after a sporting event. (Source) (Source)


Caligula was replaced by Claudius in 41. He was poisoned in 54. After him, Nero, who was previously adopted by Claudius became emperor. Nero was emperor from 54-68. He focused on trade, diplomacy, and  enhancing the empire’s cultural life. (Source) (Source)

The first Jewish-Roman war called ‘The Great Revolt’ lasted from 66-73. In 66, jews from Judea rebelled against their Roman masters. The siege of Jerusalem occurred in the year 70. During the Siege of Jerusalem, the city of Jerusalem was conquered by Titus, who became the emperor in the future. (Source) (Source) (Source)

During the year 69, four Roman emperors led in succession after Nero committed suicide. The four emperors names were Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. After the four emperors died, Titus became the emperor. (Source) (Source)


The construction of Hadrian’s wall, also known as the Roman Wall, began in 122 while Hadrian was the emperor. This wall represented the northern limit of the Roman empire. Hadrian is recognised as one of the ‘Five Good Emperors.’ (Source) (Source) (Source)

Commodus was the Emperor of Rome from 180-192. He was assassinated in 192. After a group unsuccessfully attempted to poison Commodus, they strangled him to death. (Source) (Source)


Septimus Severus was the Emperor of Rome from 193-211. After his death, his two children, Caracalla and Geta became emperors. Before dying, Septimus advised the two to get along with one another. The two brothers became co-emperors, yet they nearly hated each other. The two decided that if they were to stop their hostility they would need to separate their empire. Their Mother did not approve of this, and stopped them, as she was worried it would result in a war between the divided parts of the empire. (Source) (Source) (Source)

In the year 211, Caracalla asked Geta to meet with him to reconcile. However, reconciling was not Caracalla’s true intent, as he made some of his guards to kill Geta when he arrived. (Source)

East Germanic people, also referred to as Goths, invaded Asia Minor in 220. (Source) (Source) Franks (A Germanic group) and Goths soon began to invade Rome. (Source)

Caracalla became one of the most notorious Roman emperors. While travelling to a temple, he was approached, and stabbed to death. (Source)

The Battle of Abrittus occurred in 251, in which the Goths fought the Romans, and killed Emperor Decius and his son Herrenius. (Source)

St. Nicholas, the basis for the character of Santa Clause, was born in the year 270. He was known for helping to provide for the poor and sick. (Source) (Source)


In 303, Romans begin to persecute Christians in an attempt to stop the growth of the religion. This was named the Diocletianic Persecution. It was the last persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, yet it was also the most severe. The persecution’s intensity varied throughout the empire. In most places, Christian’s rights were revoked. This persecution ended in some places by the year 311. (Source) (Source)

Emperor Constantine became the first Catholic Roman Emperor, when he was baptised while on his deathbed. (Source)

The Roman Empire was separated in 337, when Emperor Constantine died. His sons became emperors, and divided the empire. The empire was later united after the battle of Mursa. (Source) (Source)

During the year 378, the Roman emperor, Valens, fought against the Visigoths (The Western branch of Goths.) Emperor Valens allowed the Visigoths to settle in a part of the Roman Empire. Soon after, all of the Visigoth’s weapons were taken, and their male children were kept as hostage. Valens attacked the Goths and outnumbered them. However, part of the Gothic Cavalry foraged farther away. The Gothic Cavalry soon joined the fight, and caused 40,000 Roman casualties, including Valens himself. (Source) (Source) (Source)


The last known gladiator competition in Rome occurred in the year 404. (Source)

Flavius Stilicho was a high ranking general in the Roman army who was, at a point, one of the most powerful men in the Western Roman Empire. He was executed in the year 408. (Source)

At the age of 16, St. Patrick was kidnapped by Irish pirates. He was sold into slavery, and was forced to tend sheep. In the year 408, he planned to escape and find his way home to Britain. He convinced sailors to bring him onto their ship, and he was brought to France. He then travelled 200 miles over 28 days, and reunited with his family. He later became a bishop, and attempted to teach people in Ireland about God. He is now recognised as the Patron Saint of Ireland. (Source) (Source)

During the year 410, Rome was overrun by Visigoths, leading to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Visigoths passed the undefended outskirts of Rome, and proceeded to loot, burn and pillage the area. (Source) (Source)

In the year 418, Jews were excluded from public office in the Roman Empire. (Source)


St.Patrick died in the year 461, in Saul Ireland. (Source)

In the year 476, Pavia was captured by Flavius Odoacer after Odoacer became the first barbarian King of Italy. (Source)

Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, invaded Italy in the year 489, and later became the ruler of Italy. Theodoric killed Odoacer in 493 at a banquet. (Source)


In the year 507, Visigoths were conquered by Franks. The Franks gained control of central and southern France. (Source)

The Frankish Empire was later divided into four parts in the year 511 when four brothers inherited the territory. In the year 534, the territory of Burgundy was added as a part of the Frankish Empire. (Source)

The Arabic Alphabet was created in the year 512. (Source)

The battle of Vézeronce occurred in the year 524 in Isère, France. Part of the battle involved the Franks invading Burgundy (Whose previous king had been executed by the Franks.) The Franks faced a severe defeat. (Source) (Source)

The Byzantine emperor, Justinian, issued The Code of Justinian (a collection of laws and legal interpretations) from the years 529-534. (Source) (Source)

The Gothic War took place, lasting from 535-554, between the Byzantine Empire and Italy. After the war, Rome and their allies abandoned Italy, resulting in a period of decline in Italy. The Byzantine Empire soon conquered Italy. (Source)

During the years 541-542, a plague took place in the Byzantine Empire. It resulted in the deaths of 25 million people. At the time of the outbreak, the death count of 25 million people represented 13% of the world’s population. (Source)


Byzantine conquers Southeastern Spain in 554. (Source)

In the year 557, the Byzantine Empire’s capital was severely damaged by an earthquake. (Source)

The Prophet Mohammad was born in the year 570. (Source)

Matches were invented in China in the year 577. (Source)


Smallpox spread from India to Europe in the year 600. (Source)

In the year 600, Pope Gregory declared that ‘God Bless You’ was the correct response to someone sneezing. (Source)

The largest artificial river in the world was created in China, called the Grand Canal. Creation of the river began in the year 605. The canal is currently 1,776 km long. (Source) (Source)

The emperor of the Byzantine emperor from 610-641 was Heraclius. He overthrew the previous emperor, and became the new one in the year 610. One of the major changes he made as emperor, was the act of changing the official language from Latin to Greek. (Source)

The Roman-Persian wars that began in 54 BC, and finally ended in 629 Ce. The war was mostly over territory, as the Roman Empire was attempting to expand its boundaries. (Source)

In the year 620, Vikings began to invade Ireland. (Source)

In the year 631, the Emperor of China, Taizong of Tang, sent people with gold in hopes of the release of Chinese prisoners in Xueyantuo. This plan was successful, as an estimated 80,000 prisoners were released. (Source) (Source)


The Battle of Baekgang occurred in the year 663. Tang Chinese and Silla Korean Forces defeated Korean Baekje forces and Yamato Japanese forces. (Source)

The first Bulgarian empire lasted from the 7th to the 11th century, starting in the year 681. (Source) (Source)

Saint Werburgh died in the year 699. She was the daughter of the first Christian Mercian King, Wulfhere. She reorganised many nunneries across Mercia with the help of her uncle. She was buried in Hanbury, but when the area was threatened, she was moved to Chester, England. She is currently recognized as the patron saint of Chester. (Source) (Source)


K’inich Kan B’alam II, the king of Palenque died in the year 702, at the age of 66. Once he began his reign, he began work on the Temple of the Cross Complex, comprised of three temples. He was also very involved with the military before his death. (Source) (Source)

The first, and only, woman to rule in the Tang Dynasty was named Wu Zetian. She died December 16th, 705. (Source) (Source)

Pope Sisinnius died after being the Pope for less than a month in the year 708. (Source)

The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople lasted from 717 to 718. Arabs attempted to siege the capital of the Byzantine empire, Constantinople. Ground and sea forces were used to attack Constantinople. The attacks were unsuccessful because the ground forces were stopped by Constantinople’s walls, and the sea forces were defeated by Greek Fire. (Source) (Source)

In the year 730, as the power struggle between the pope and the Byzantine Emperor Leo III intensifies, Pope Gregory II officially excluded Emperor Leo III from participation in services of the Christian church. (Source) (Source)

The Battle of Tours occurred in the year 732, and was fought by Frankish forces and a large invading Islamic army. The Franks defeated the Islamic army, and killed Abd ar-Rahman, the Muslim governor of Córdoba. (Source) (Source) (Source)


In the year 793, the first Vikings (Nordic seafarers) attacked Northeastern England. The Vikings were different from other attackers because they did not respect religious buildings, such as monasteries. Vikings attacked monasteries as they were usually near the shore and were left unguarded. (Source)

Tarasios of Constantinople was involved in a controversy in the year 795. He condoned the divorce between Emperor Constantine VI and his wife. Many protests began, but the leaders of the protests were exiled. A large amount of anger was directed at Tarasios for allowing the Emperor to remarry to a woman named Theodote. (Source) (Source)

The first Viking raid in Europe occurred in the year 799. For the next several decades, Vikings attacked British Isles and Europe. (Source)


In the year 802, Iona was raided by Vikings. In the year 804, Vikings killed 68 people in the monastic community in Iona. Iona was also raided another time in the year 806. (Source) (Source)

Tarasios died in the year 806. (Source)

Charles the Younger was the King of the Franks for a period of time before he died in the year 811 from a stroke. (Source)

Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, who was crowned by the pope, died in the year 815 due to a fever he believed he could overcome by fasting. (Source) (Source)

All Hallows Eve, now known as Halloween, was meant to honour the saints on October 31st, 834. (Source)

Halley’s Comet came within 3.2 million miles of Earth in the year 837. (Source)

In the year 840, Vikings began to settle in Ireland. (Source)


In the year 844, 70-80 ships filled with Vikings sailed to Spain and attacked the Asturians. The Asturians defeated the Vikings. (Source) (Source)

In the year 845, a Viking named Ragnar Lodbrok led a Viking army to take Paris in the year 845. Over 120 Viking ships held thousands of men during this attack. The attack was stopped, as the Vikings were paid a ransom of 2,750 kilograms of silver and gold. (Source) (Source)

Rus’ Vikings pillaged the Capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, while the empire was participating in the Byzantine-Arab wars. (Source) (Source)

On November 1st, 866, on All Saints Day, Vikings raided York, England. York was raided by the Vikings a second time in the following year, leading to the deaths of Aelle and Osbert, the Northumbrian Kings. (Source)

King Charles the Bald created a large group of cavalry as a defence against Vikings in the year 864. (Source)

A ‘Golden Age’ began in the Byzantine Empire, beginning in the year 863 and ending in the year 1025, under the rule of Macedonians. The Empire began to expand, and strengthen its military. (Source)


The recorded history of Iceland began with the settlement of Vikings in Iceland. Vikings began to settle in Iceland in the year 870. (Source)

Aethelred I, the King of Wessex and Kent died after being defeated by the Danish in the year 871. (Source)

The Battle of Leuven was fought in the year 891, between the Franks and Vikings. The Franks successfully stopped the Viking attack. (Source)

Odo was the King of West Francia from 888-889. He was responsible for resisting the Vikings during the siege of Paris. He died in the year 898. (Source) (Source)


Bulgaria converted to Christianity in the year 907. (Source)

During August of 910, the last major Viking army was defeated by the Kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex during The Battle of Tettenhall.  (Source)


Richard, the Duke of Burgundy died in the year 921. While he was alive, Richard captured a small city in East Central France called Mâcon. (Source) (Source) (Source)

Saint Ludmilla was a Slavic martyr who hoped to establish Christianity in Bohemia. She married a man named Borivoj, who was the first Christian Czech Prince. Borivaj died in the year 899. Ludmilla and Borivoj’s child, Ratislav, later had a child named Wenceslas, who later became a prince of Bohemia. Wenceslas was cared for by Ludmilla, who raised him to be Christian. However, after Ratislav’s death, Bohemia was ruled by anti-Christians. Wenceslas became the ruler in the year 921. Ludmilla was strangled to death because of her Christian influence on Wenceslas. (Source) (Source)

The Battle of the Bosnian Highlands occurred in the year 927. The battle was fought between the Bulgarian Army, and the Croatian Army. The Croatian army won the war, mainly due to the fact that the Croatian soldiers were more experienced in fighting in mountainous terrain. (Source)

In September of 935, King Wenceslas was stabbed to death by a small group of people, including his younger brother. (Source)


William I Longsword worked to expand territories for the French King. After the year 940 William attempted to expand French territory northwards, however, he was soon assassinated in the year 941. (Source)

The Battle of Lechfeld occurred in the year 955. It was fought between Eastern-Frankish Kingdom (Germans,) and The Magyars. The German army included approximately 3,000-8,000 men, while the Magyar army included 10,000-25,000 men. After the battle, 3,000 German and 4,500 Magyar men died. In the end, the German’s won the battle. (Source) (Source)

Edgar The Peaceful became the king of England in the year 959 after his older brother, the previous King, died. He unified England under one dynasty while he was the King. King Edgar created a navy made of 3,600 ships that protected England from Danes. (Source) (Source)


 Poland converted to Christianity in the year 966. (Source)

King Edward the Martyr became the King of England when he was 13 years old in the year 975. In the year 978,  Edward was visiting Queen Elfrthrth at Corfe Castle. After arriving at the castle, and dismounting from his horse, Queen Elfrthrth’s adviser stabbed King Edward to death. (Source) (Source) (Source)


Erik the Red was exiled from Iceland in the year 980. After being exiled, he sailed West and founded Greenland in the year 982. He later returned to Iceland to tell others about Greenland. In the year 985, he brought 25 ships full of people and livestock to Greenland, however only 14 ships made it there. (Source) (Source)

In the year 991, the Battle of Maldon occurred. Some Scandinavian Vikings attempted a raid against Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxons were lead by a man named Brithnoth (or Bryhtnoth,) who was often described as overconfident. Brithnoth was confident he would succeed in battle, and he allowed the battle to take place. Brithnoth died during the battle, leading to the deaths of a large portion of the remaining forces. (Source) (Source) (Source)

The battle of Svolder occurred in the year 1000. Olaf Tryggvason was the King of Viken, an area near Norway. While King Olaf was sailing, he was ambushed by an alliance of his enemies. They had 70 ships while Olaf had a mere 11. All of King Olaf’s ships were captured except for his own. To avoid being taken alive, King Olaf jumped into the ocean, wearing his heavy equipment. He drowned. (Source) (Source)

Leif Eriksson, a descendant of Erik the Red, was the first European to step foot in North America in the year 1000. Eriksson named the area he discovered, which is thought to be in modern-day Nova Scotia, Vinland. (Source)


The St Brice’s Day massacre occurred in the year 1002, as ordered by the English King, King Ethelred. King Ethelred, often referred to as Ethelred the Unready or Ethelred the Ill-Advised, ordered to have all Danish men in England killed. (Source) (Source)

The St. Brice’s Day Massacre provoked Sweyn’s invasions in 1003 and 1004. Sweyn was a Viking who led invasions on England. (Source)

The Tale of Genji was published in the year 1008, and is considered to be the world’s first full-length novel. (Source) (Source)


In the year 1012, after the murder of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the sack of Canterbury, Ethelred the Unready paid Danish Vikings 48,000 £ in silver in exchange for the Vikings stopping their attacks. The 48,000 £ was gathered by Ethelred through a tax called Danegeld. (Source)

In the year 1013, Sweyn returned to England and became the King. He exiled the previous king, Ethelred II. (Source)

The Battle of Clontarf was fought between Irish forces and Vikings in the year 1014. Though the High King of Ireland, Brian Boru, was among the 7,000 to 10,000 men who were killed, the Irish won the battle. (Source) (Source)


Boleslaw I the Brave became the first King of Poland in the year 1025. (Source)

Olaf Haraldsson was the King of Norway until 1028, when he was exiled. (Source)

During the year 1030, the Battle of Stiklestad occurred. The battle revolved around the introduction of Christianity to Norway. During the battle, Olaf Haraldsson was killed. (Source) (Source) (Source)

Romanus III, a Byzantine Emperor, was thought to have been assassinated by his wife in the year 1034. He was drowned to death, supposedly by his wife. (Source)

King Duncan I, the King of Scotland, was thought of as a terrible leader. He was killed in the year 1040 by two of his cousins, Macbeth and the Earl Orkney. (Source) (Source)


Hardicanute, the King of England, died in the year 1042, ending Danish’s rule over England. Hardicanute died from a stroke that was caused by him drinking too much alcohol. (Source) (Source)

Pope Leo IX led a papal army to banish the Normans in the year 1053. He was captured and was unable to return to Rome for 9 months. Shortly after his return to Rome, he died on April 19th, 1504. (Source) (Source)

In the year 1054, one of the brightest known supernovas was reported by Chinese astronomers. This created the ‘Crab Nebula.’ (Source) (Source)

 A small portion of the ‘Crab Nebula.’


The German King, Henry IV, gave away the Utrecht county of West Friesland in the year 1064. (Source)

In the year 1066, an English Monk, Eilmer of Malmesbury believed the country would soon end after witnessing Halley’s Comet. (Source) (Source)

The Battle of Fulford occurred in the year 1066. This battle resulted in the end of Anglo-Saxon England, possibly fulfilling Eilmer of Malmesbury’s expectation for the country. (Source)

During the Battle of Hastings, King Harold II of England died. He was the last Anglo-Saxon King in England. (Source)

In the year 1071, Byzantine ended their rule over Italy. (Source)

The Tower of London

The White Tower, was built in the year 1078 by William the Conqueror. At the time, the building was meant to provide housing for the King and his representatives. The tower was renamed the ‘Tower of London’ in the future. From the year 1100 until 1952, the tower was occasionally used as a prison. The tower was surrounded by a moat and defensive walls. The castle still exists and is over 900 years old. (Source) (Source) (Source)

Over the years, many notable prisoners were kept in the London Tower, including Guy Fawkes, a man who attempted to detonate 36 barrels of gunpowder to destroy the tower in 1605. Guy Fawkes was caught because one of his accomplices sent an anonymous letter to a friend, warning him to stay away from the building. The letter was later found by the King. (Source) (Source)

Sir Walter Raleigh was another famous prisoner in the tower. He was a soldier for a period of time and was knighted by Elizabeth I, the Queen of England from 1588-1603. He became the Captain of the Queen’s Guard in the year 1585. However, despite his position, he was imprisoned in the tower in the year 1592, as it was revealed he had married one of the Queen’s Maids of Honour. (Source) (Source)

Ranulf Flambard was one of the tower’s first prisoners in the year 1100. Before his imprisonment, he was a tax collector. He was sent to the prison because he was accused of extortion. During a large feast, he attempted to escape. He used a rope he had smuggled into the prison with the help of a friend, and lowered himself through the window. His friend was waiting for him outside of the tower with horses. (Source) (Source) (Source)

Though the Tower of London was a tourist attraction for some time, it was changed back into a prison temporarily during WWII. The prison held a man named Josef Jakobs, who was a Nazi Spy captured in England. Jakobs was the final person to be executed in the tower. (Source)

Anne Askew was executed in the tower. She was a protestant martyr. In the year 1546, she was burned at the stake due to her being found guilty of heresy. She was tortured in the prison as an attempt to make her reveal the names of other protestants, though she did not. (Source) (Source) (Source)



The Great London Tornado destroyed the London Bridge as well as approximately 600 wooden homes in the year 1091. Despite the immense amount of damage, only two people were thought to have died as a result. This was the first tornado in documented British history. (Source)

The First Crusade

The First Crusade began when Pope Urban II called for a crusade in 1096 to free the city of Jerusalem and help Byzantines fight against the Seljuq Dynasty. The Seljuk Empire had been gaining power and territory since the 1030s. (Source) (Source)

Four armies of Crusaders formed in Western European areas. They met in Constantinople in the year 1906. Prior to these armies, a smaller group called the ‘People’s Crusade’ attempted to battle the Turkish forces without the other Crusaders. They were extremely unsuccessful. (Source) (Source)

The Crusaders joined forces with the Byzantine armies, as they took control of the Syrian city, Antioch in the year 1098. After that, they began to travel to Jerusalem. Though the Crusaders were successful in capturing Jerusalem, they killed hundreds of men, women, and children in the process. (Source)



The Council of Nablus established the laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1120. (Source) (Source)

 The Second Crusade – 1145

The Second Crusade began when Edessa, Greece had fallen. Armies from England, France, Germany, and other countries gathered in Constantinople. The armies were led by Louis VII of France. Once the armies reached Constantinople, they planned an invasion and a fight against Turkish armies. (Source) (Source)

The Second Crusade involved three objectives. Fighting Muslim forces in Spain, fighting Wends (Members of a Slavic Tribe,) and restoring Edessa. (Source)

Many poorly disciplined troops caused issues in Constantinople, though peace remained. (Source)

After a failed siege, most Christian armies did not trust one another. While some troops were attacking Ascalon, a city in the Southern District of Israel,  they required extra help from the other armies, tough none arrived. This intensified the distrust between the armies. (Source) (Source)

The Second Crusade collapsed in the year 1149, after a failed siege on the capital of Syria, Damascus. (Source) (Source)


Sunglasses were invented in the year 1200 by China. (Source) (Source)


Other Sources of Information: (Source) (Source) (Source) (Source)

The second part of this article will likely be released May 26th December 31st, covering the years 1200-1750 CE.

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